– Module: AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION
– This brief cover is a desсrіption of the assessment, learning outcomes, thesis statements, module framework, academic research, discursive essay techniques, the assessment criteria, models, portfolio structure, and how to get support.
– this is rather complicated and hard assignment.
– There are four learning outcomes module learning outcomes or ellos. Number one, demonstrate knowledge and critical understanding of technological developments in the aviation industry. Number two critically evaluate the different technological approaches for solving problems in the aviation context. Number three, applying knowledge of aviation technologies in a new and innovative context. And number four proposed solutions to problems identified from a critical analysis of technology in a management context.
– This portfolio got two parts , part one is comprised of academic researches. 1500 words plus or minus 10%. And part two is a discursive essay. Again, it′s 1500 words plus or minus 10%. So, in total, it′s 3000 words plus or minus 10%
– The Part One and Part Two are held together with what′s called a thesis statement
– So part one is all about academic research. Now as a guideline, for part one, you′re required to include the following, which should be clearly identified. A minimum of four academic sources, such as publish articles from journals, or reputable academic sources, such as books, or online publications. The key here is we′re looking for academic sources. Ideally, journals more or better a little bit. However, given the fact that it′s technology and innovation, it may not all be found in journals. So you have a maximum of two non academic sources. These can include include things such as white papers, industry, organisational papers, etc. But the key here is that is looking for a minimum of six clearly identified sources for the basis of the academic research the word there is minimum. Of course, you can have more. Now part two is built up from part one. So you′ll continue to use the same document as part one of the portfolio and the source is collected in part one will help you write the essay. So it′s a discursive essay more of that in a moment, too. It′s an essay genre of writing that asks you to investigate a topic, gather, read and evaluate evidence and present a position on your topic based on the evidence gathered.
– Now the structure of a discursive essay is held together with a thesis statement, which outlines your argument or your position on the topic
– the key aim of a discursive essay is to convince your reader that the argument that you′re presenting is a valid one.
– Part One and Part Two, held together by this thesis statement idea
– -Now for this module, you get to choose your topic.
– So you can choose to write a topic on airlines airports or manufacturers or anything that sits in between those in terms of Technology and innovation
– this assessment is an opportunity for you to step outside your comfort zone and practice how to be really critical now. 30% of the marks are on discussion or the discursive element. So for example, if your personal view of the topic is primarily positive, then step outside your comfort zone and try to be as hostile as possible towards him or vice versa. So if your position is primarily hostile, try and be positive about it. So then when making a very clear for and against advantages or disadvantages.
– The key here is we′re looking at anything that′s technology or innovation and during the lectures you will find that it′s quite a raw, wide-ranging topic with lots of things in it.
– But main thing though, is to break the topic down into following five areas for discussion and debate. So looking at the operational efficiencies of chosen technology or innovation, looking whether it generates cost reduction or generates revenue generation, we′re looking whether for the provider does product differentiation, and mostly whether there′s an environmental performance with poor improvement that doesn′t necessarily have to be climate change. It can be improvement for the workers in a certain environment.
– So hang on to that framework when you′re doing your research when you′re doing your writing more of that in a few moments too. So the key skill what we′re trying to get to you to learn this year is converting ideas into research. So thinking about the assessment and think about your topic. Now, you know, you may have a look around the industry and there′s maybe evidence of poor practice and during the lectures we looked at quite a few examples of that. So for example, we looked at COVID Airport chaos we looked at things like British Airways passengers stranded after it failures. So there may be things that are very evident to you, as a student studying aviation have poor practice, where it technology innovation is play. But there was advantages and disadvantages to the use of that technology and innovation. So you know we′re looking for any evidence of a good practice and what does it look like or poor practice? There might be a way to do it the other main thing to do in this assignment is journal articles. This assessment will help you get used to searching effectively for journal articles, actually reading them and then critically arranging and sorting them according to the arguments or discussions that these articles might pose. Now you can use books and other sources, but you know for you′re building up for this module to help you build up for next year and finally, and finally, dissertation. Try wherever possible to use articles. So converting your ideas into research. So number one, you know, find a journal article using the key words from your chosen topic. And over the weeks on this module in the lectures, we looked at how you can start off with a number of key words. find journal articles, always have a look at the journal articles and the keywords they use. And then you can adopt and use those keywords yourself and start to refine your searches number to try and read and understand the article. You can convert it into a PowerPoint presentation. That′s optional. I do that sometimes. It′s not part of the assignment, but it can help break down a complicated topic into something maybe a bit more visually appealing and number three, collect and arrange your articles using ideally RefWorks make notes and then go back to step one if needed. So then finding the journal article, choose a new key words and then so on and so forth. It is an iterative process. And what this part one of this assignment is doing is seeing if you are good at doing an iterative process, ie not just going and finding the first thing that Google pops up on the first screen, but really looking into it and really having a search. It′s developing your research study skills. So always keeping in the back of your mind the framework so you′re looking for keywords such as operational efficiencies, cost reduction, revenue generation, product differentiation, environmental performance, of course, those words may not come out in that sense or those exact words. So you′re looking for similes or synonyms that help you find that in those articles. Just a slight segue here we think about research from a honeybees perspective, and something called a waggle dance. Here on the left hand side you can see a map of a beehive that′s the blue.in the centre of the field, and then you can see the number of different directions the bees took and you can see the red lines are unsuccessful. And you can see the sort of yellow and orange lines is semi successful and you see the green lines are successful routes that the honeybee took from the hive to find nectar and then come back to the beehive. You can see that it′s none of it′s in straight lines. It′s all iterative. It′s all going backwards and forwards is research is very, very similar to honeybee. You just have to keep going out and searching searching sometimes the sources you have. We′re good. We′re one week and then maybe the next week they weren′t so good. Because the information wasn′t updated or so on and so forth. Now key to this is on return to the hive. bees do something what′s called a waggle dance and this is to tell the other bees in the hive where the best nectar is without getting too technical. You can see that the the length of the waggle, as in the a b b moving forwards tells you how far to go. And then the direction they waggle they go left or right is the direction they need to go when they leave the hive to get it. So, you know bringing us back to a real life you know, in academic terms we are the honeybees. We are going out we′re going to lots of different sources. You′re looking for the best sources and then when you come back when terms of academic referencing harvester are referencing, you′re telling the others where those sources were and how good they were. And that′s where I want you to start using or getting comfortable using RefWorks so that′s research from a honeybees perspective and the waggle dance. You will not get the nectar every time from the same location or the same frequency. And when you come back you need to tell the others where the best was found. Going back earlier, six sources so for your assignment, you′ll need to read, find and read and critically analyse and synthesise and discuss a minimum of six sources. Okay. And you know, going back to the module study guide, you can see that can be broken down to four academic sources and to either non academic or academic sources a minimum of six sources. Again, this is where you want to be putting them into your RefWorks because this will help a skill set that you will need for your final dissertation when you′re doing this exercise but it will be three times as big. In other words for you 10,000 words and not 3000 words. Also we′re looking to do is assess your research skills. So think about your research kitbag that you have here at the university west London. Get used to using scholar linking scholar to the UW library if you haven′t done so we′re already getting used to using what′s called Boolean search operators that′s adding the words in uppercase and, or or not, and a few other derivations too. And then looking into lip SERPs we invest West London Google Scholar will only typically produce around 30% of the total academic sources. The other 70% 100% can be found through lib search. But with lib search, it′s not as intuitive and easy. And you really do need to develop your research skills. So imagine if you were the honeybee and you only use scholar google scholar, you will only be limiting yourself to 30% of the area and total to look for the nectar live search is 100%. But as I mentioned, you do need to develop your research skills and that′s what we′re testing as well. The other thing we′re testing here is AP prac. Looking at the authorship, purpose, relevance, accuracy and currency of the sources that you choose. And of course, last but not least, I′m really really trying to pressurise you into using RefWorks because it really will help so going back to the essay discursive essay, it′s all in a very brutal or blunt terms, looking at the advantages or disadvantages of your chosen topic, technology or innovation. So discursive essay in summary, you know, provides readers with a fairer debate on the topic. So I said before looking for both sides, with the help of opposing points of view. Each point should be discussed objectively and described in some detail. The introductory paragraph puts the issue under consideration, and the main body of the essay paper should represent examples reasons and arguments supported by justifications. Only. Lastly, in the conclusion, the author′s own opinion, with balanced reflection of the topic should be stated there. So thinking about it from those six sources, you will need to research a proper research and read approximately 24 sources to narrow this down. So and then, you know, that′s where RefWorks comes in, because you′re going to have to try and think well, I′ve read quite a few sources. How am I going to organise and narrow them down and put them as my minimum six sources into my portfolio? Thinking about your discursive essay coming back to my famous Why am I there it is. So you know, it′s not really for you to waste valuable word count on describing what IT technology is. You know, because that′s, that′s just desсrіptive. It′s not discursive and you′ll lose valuable marks if you do that. It′s less so on how a technology or innovation works, but it′s a lot more on the Wi Fi. So try and avoid describing how a certain technology works or innovation works. And although it′s fascinating and interesting, it′s not really adding you adding marks to your assignment. So avoid the What the How and start asking yourself the why question. Now looking at the assessment criteria again, this can be found in more detail with in the module study guide. But in essence, you know, we′re looking for a strong thesis statement so you can go back and have a look at the videos there. We′re looking for your research study skills, and we′re looking for how you can write a discursive essay. Looking at here you know, the academic research skills, the analysis skills and synthesis skills and the discursive essay skills represent about 90% of the mark. Now, part one and part two are submitted together. And the marking scheme applies across equally to part one and part two, as does of course, the presentation structure spelling, grammar and punctuation, sitting at the bottom at table at 10%. So having a strong thesis statement will hold together your Part One and Part Two, bit like the honeybee. It is not a linear process. You can of course start with the academic research and then do the F discursive essay. As you′re writing the discursive essay you might find that some of the sources that you found initially, maybe didn′t support your arguments in the way you thought it would. So you need to go back and this is where they looking for at least 24 sources to support your minimum six sources comes in. So again, what we′re looking for is to leave to develop the notion or the idea that research is not a linear pattern. In other words, you don′t go from part one to part two. That′s it done. You get from part one to part two, and then get your rubber F and go back and then go back into part one, and maybe change the sources. Indeed a good thesis statement or something that would also evolve with that to the thesis statement you write initially. You will probably tweak it for that you might want to go back to your coherent, contentious and concise advice. Now, the other part of the module is we need tools in life to measure things if you can′t measure it, you probably can′t manage it and things you measure tend to improve. So the whole point of technology and innovation is ideally to improve things in some shape or form. And we need to measure how improvement is made. Now you know a lot of academic work is based on models, theories and concepts but according to or sort of covering most of these are three broad categories. Some models, theories and concepts are almost entirely desсrіptive. Others are analytical, and others are hybrid, so a combination desсrіptive and analytical. So in crude terms a desсrіptive model will be the SWOT model the strengths, weaknesses and opportunities. And that just describes a phenomenon. Analytical ones look not other what said the desсrіptive one a SWOT looks at what Hamilton was more more of a how and the why. And then we′ve got the hybrid models which are a combination or a cocktail almost of desсrіptive and analytical models say looking at the critical thinking they look at synthesising looking at evaluation, a bit like the picture there you′ve got all the play bricks in one flat truck there and then you can make any difference shape or size you want from that so when we′re looking at theories and models concepts, I′m expecting some of those to appear in your work and in your research and in your discursive discursive essay. I would urge you to be on the right hand side of this screen in terms of analytical hybrid models rather than desсrіptive models. So I′m not expectancy any swats because they just talk about the desсrіptive elements but not the analytical. So using the right tool for the job model theories and concepts please see the weekly lectures for both topics and suggested models and theories and concepts that go with those topics. Keep reminding you of the framework using this model module should I say so operational efficiencies, cost reduction, revenue generation product differentiation, and environmental performance. Now the last few slides here talk about some structure. So with some guidelines, these are not strict by any sense. They just give you an idea maybe how you can break down what feels like a complex assignment with 3000 words into more manageable chunks. So part one is 1500 words or 1500 words, plus or minus 10%. So you′ll need to find a minimum of six sources. So bearing that in mind so for this you might have an introduction of around 150 words. And then for your six sources. You might want to write 200 words on them. Each now two words is actually a relatively short paragraph. And so if you write 200 words on each source, they will quickly build up to 1200 words, and then your conclusion 250 words and there′s your total of 1500 words so choosing those six sources, understanding them and writing about them in a succinct way that supports your argument or positively or negatively. So it′s not something you can write the night before submission because there′s a lot more involved in it. Now, part two, is a discursive essay, and again, this is a workout guideline. It′s not explicit. So part two is also 1500 words. And what you can do now is discuss your sources using these five areas so they can be a combination of them. They don′t have to have all them equally, but operational efficiencies, cost reduction, revenue generation, product differentiation, and environmental performance. So always keep those in the back of your mind. So for this one, you might want to have an introduction which is to read words and then you could write approximately 220 words per source. So, of the five sources there, so again, it comes to 1200 words, and then a conclusion of 200 words and then a total of 1500 words. So as you can see what I′ve done on the previous to the slides is try to break down what might at first feel a complicated or complex portfolio into manageable chunks. So finally, looking at this from a slightly different perspective, the assignment combination approach Premo recommended here on the left-hand side you can see the same boxes for part one and part two that I′ve just gone. Through. But seeing as this as a combined portfolio, you might want to instead of writing two separate introductions, one for part one and one for part two, you might want to try and combine them. You know, instead of 150 Words, Part One and 200 Words, Part two is 350 words and you might want to do the same for the conclusion. So different combinations, but the most important thing is to try and structure and equally wait your research across both Part One and Part Two, the discursive essay.